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Investment Terms Glossary - Archway Investments

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Welcome to our comprehensive Glossary of Investment Terms! We understand that the world of investments can sometimes be filled with complex jargon and terminology. To empower you with knowledge and understanding, we have compiled this handy resource that explains key investment terms in a clear and concise manner.

Asset Allocation:

The process of spreading investments across different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, and cash, to manage risk and achieve specific financial goals.

Bull Market:

A market condition characterized by rising prices and optimism, encouraging investors to buy securities based on the expectation of continued gains.

Bear Market:

A market condition characterized by falling prices and pessimism, prompting investors to sell securities as they anticipate further declines.


A risk management strategy involving the inclusion of a variety of investments within a portfolio to reduce exposure to any single asset or market.


A portion of a company’s profits distributed to its shareholders as a return on their investment.

Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF):

A type of investment fund that trades on stock exchanges, representing a basket of assets like stocks, bonds, or commodities.


A benchmark used to measure the performance of a market or specific investment category, often used as a reference for comparing portfolio returns.


The ease with which an investment can be bought or sold without causing a significant price change.

Market Capitalization:

The total value of a company’s outstanding shares, calculated by multiplying the stock price by the number of shares.


A collection of investments held by an individual or institution, designed to achieve specific financial objectives.

Risk Tolerance:

An investor’s ability and willingness to endure fluctuations in the value of their investments before making changes to their portfolio.


A share of ownership in a company, representing a claim on its assets and earnings.


A debt security that represents a loan made by an investor to a borrower, typically a government or corporation, in exchange for periodic interest payments and the return of the bond’s face value at maturity.

Mutual Fund:

An investment vehicle that pools money from multiple investors to purchase a diversified portfolio of securities managed by professional fund managers.

Capital Gain:

The profit earned from selling an investment for a higher price than its original purchase cost.


The income generated by an investment, usually expressed as a percentage of the investment’s current market price.

Expense Ratio:

The annual fee charged by a mutual fund or ETF to cover its operating expenses, expressed as a percentage of the fund’s total assets.


A retirement savings plan in the United States that allows employees to contribute a portion of their salary on a pre-tax basis, often with employer matching contributions.

Asset Class:

A group of investments with similar characteristics, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or commodities.

Hedge Fund:

An investment partnership that employs various strategies to generate returns for its investors, often with more flexibility compared to traditional investment funds.

Initial Public Offering (IPO):

The first sale of a company’s stock to the public, allowing the company to raise capital from investors and become publicly traded on a stock exchange.